What Are the Roles of Enzymes in Yeast Fermentation? – The Catalysts Group

What Are the Roles of Enzymes in Yeast Fermentation?

Since the beginning of time, enzymes have had a very important role. Whenever it came upon making the existence easy, enzymes totally helped. You may not know, but old civilizations have been using enzymes in the yeast fermentation process for a long time now. Especially the use of enzymes in food preparations is an age-old process.

Over the years, the usage of enzymes has grown to a larger capacity. The enzymatic solutions are contributing as a real-time advantage to various industries. They are not just important for energy consumption and fermentation industries but also play a crucial role in minimizing environmental pollution. In the food industry, enzymes are used in the fermentation process for the production of drinks, bread, wine, and beer. Let’s study the role of enzymes in various advantages, especially when it comes to yeast fermentation, in-depth.

What are Enzymes?

Enzymes are proteins that have a high number of catalytic functions. In fact, you might not know that almost all living beings make enzymes. However, natural enzymes are different from the enzymes that are used in the yeast fermentation process. Enzymes actually help in speeding up the process of biochemical reactions that occur in living beings like plants and animals.

Enzymes are natural elements that are imperative for the various metabolic processes, but they aren’t alive. Amino acids make up enzymes, and they function very differently due to their specific configuration. But the main thing about them is the catalytic capability that makes them completely different from other proteins.

Different Types of Enzymes

Enzymes are differentiated based on how they act on different substrates. Some of the most common types of enzymes used in the yeast fermentation industries include the following.

●Proteases: Help in breaking down the protein molecules
● Lipases: Help in breaking down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
● Cellulases: Break down cellulose components
● Amylases: Break down starch into simple sugars

Now let us focus on fermentation so that we can understand how enzymes play a crucial role in the process of fermentation.

What Is Fermentation?

Fermentation is a unique metabolic process in which different microorganisms are involved in helping achieve desired results in foods and beverages. This process also helps increase or add flavour, preserve the taste, and provide various health benefits.

Fermented foods are a good source of probiotics, and the addition of these microorganisms into the body also helps in maintaining the good health of your gut. Fermentation also plays a very vital role in enhancing the mineral and vitamin content of the food that makes food more accessible to absorption. There are different types of fermentation, like lactic acid fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, and ethanol fermentation, and it is the one that helps in producing wine and beer, etc.

Ethanol fermentation is also the process involving yeast for breaking down different elements like pyruvate molecules under the glycolysis pathway.

Enzymes for Fermentation

As mentioned earlier, enzymes are an essential part of the fermentation process. However, which enzymes will be used in the process entirely depends upon the purpose. The addition of malt is also included in the fermentation process. There have also been several changes across the whole malting procedure in the past few years and its distilling operations as well.

Industrial enzymes also play a crucial role when it comes to liquefaction & Saccharification. The industrial enzymes are required in minimal amounts during the fermentation process. On the other hand, malt is needed in huge quantities in the process due to its inherent enzymes. This is the reason why industries have switched themselves from malt to enzymes to reduce the cost of the fermentation process.

Enzymes Present In Yeast

The two main enzymes that are present in yeast are Maltase and Invertase. Besides that, there are also other minor enzymes in yeast that contribute in some or the other way to the total changes brought by the yeast activity.

Role & Importance of Enzymes for The Fermentation Process

Different fermentation procedures require enzymes to speed up the process. As we know, Alcohol does not occur without using the enzyme amylase, as these enzymes are responsible for breaking down starch into simple sugar. In addition to that, one of the most important facts of the fermentation procedure is that it is impossible without enzymes for any starchy feedstock.

Certain fermentation enzymes are available that come in different types and are approved by the government. One very important thing to be kept in mind is the dosage of enzymes in the fermentation process. The enzymes used in the brewing industry mainly include hydrolase and protease enzymes, and all these enzymes are added during the maturation, fermentation, and mashing procedure.

Enzymes actually make brewing easy and effective. The brewers and brewing industries have also been using enzymes for a long time in order to maintain product quality. Besides that, enzymes also help industries use the local raw materials, which helps in lowering the carbon footprint and creating a local market for the farmers. The use of enzymes in the fermentation process also reduces the consumption of energy, water and a better supply chain logistics system.

They also provide better solubilization during the mashing process and help to get better filtration cycles and higher yields. The use of some specific enzymes in the fermentation process also provides consistent foam results without compromising the quality of the material.

In summary, we can say that enzymes play a very important role in the fermentation process to affect starch reduction and sugar production. Each enzyme involved in the process has a particular job to perform. Today, winemaking and beer brewing companies are doing profitable business because this ancient knowledge has been combined with modern production processes. In the end, Humankind has availed of different benefits from these fermented products.