Sugar was first manufactured from sugar cane in India, and its manufacture has spread from there throughout the world. Chemically, sugar is the substance sucrose, which can behydrolysed in acidic solution (i.e. below pH 7) to form the monosaccharides glucose and fructose as follows. sucrose + H2O →glucose + fructose Sucrose is purified from raw sugar (97.5% sucrose) in a four step process as follows:
Step 1 – Affination
The raw sugar is mixed with a saturated syrup and then centrifuged to extract the crystals. Surface impurities (molasses) dissolve in this syrup and are removed.
Step 2 – Carbonization
The sugar is redissoved and calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide are added to the solution. These react according to the following equation Ca(OH)2 + CO2 →CaCO3 + H2O Color, gum and amino acid impurities precipitate out with the calcium carbonate.
Step 3 – Char filtration
Activated charcoal is added to the syrup, removing color and inorganic ash.
Step 4 – Crystallization
The solution is boiled under vacuum and the crystal growth monitored to produce particular sizes of crystal.
The sugar is made into a variety of different products (raw sugar, golden syrup, treacle, soft brown sugar, coffee crystals, 1A sugar, castor sugar, liquid sugar) with varying amounts of glucose, fructose and inorganic impurities. Pollution is minimized by ensuring complete fuel combustion, monitoring liquid and gaseous effluents. The solid mud from carbonization is buried on site.
REFINED SUGAR PRODUCTS
Granulated sugar containing 99.93% sucrose and sold as castor sugar (fine crystals) and 1A sugar is the major refined product. Soft brown sugar is a specialty product with a Characteristic flavor, produced by crystals used from a selected syrup with a high reducing sugar and ash content. Coffee crystals are made from the same syrup as brown sugar, but are crystallized over a much longer period of time giving much larger crystals.
Several grades are produced in liquid form with quality to meet customer requirements. This sugar is produced at 67o Brix (% solids) at which density it is unlikely to crystallize. Liquid sugar is utilized in industry.
to split sucrose into glucose and fructose. Golden syrup contains about 27% sucrose and 47% reducing sugar with 3% ash and 18% water. The high reducing sugar component inhibits crystallization and allows a table syrup to remain in liquid form. Treacle is produced in the same manner from a similar syrup except that char decolourisation is not used.
Golden syrup and treacle are produced from selected syrups by inverting1 a portion of the syrup using invertase (an enzyme) or acid hydrolysis
Enzylase is a high temperature starch hydrolyzing alpha amylase which is obtained by the controlled fermentation of genetically modified strain of Bacillus Licheniformis. It has been designed and developed by our R&D team for hydrolysis of the interior alpha-1-4-glucosidic bond of starch and its degradation products.
Enzydex is a fungal dextranase 1,6-alpha-P-glucan 6-glucanohydrolase which is obtained by the controlled fermentation of Penicillium Paecilomyces. It has been designed and developed by our R&D team for hydrolysis of the interior alpha-1-6-glucosidic bond of dextran and its degradation products.
Enzysweet is a liquid protease enzyme designed for its application in the processing of sugar cane.
ENZYMOL PROTECT is a unique formulation using inimitable combination of enzymes. It has been designed & developed for preservation of molasses quality during storage. It also has supporting ingredients to control the formation of undesirable acids.
Bactosafe, an efficient mill sanitizer, specially formulated for sugar industry to control the undesirable microbial contamination within the process.
ENZYCOLOR GO-J is an aqueous amine-based polymer solution and it is used as colour precipitating agent in Phospho-flotation process.
SulfoTreat -R is a unique catalytic formulation to effectively reduce the concentration of sulphides in the water or wastewater to below toxic/nuisance levels.
SulfoTreat–P is an innovative formulation used to inhibit the formation of biogenic sulphide and prevents its accumulation in the water and wastewater having low dissolved oxygen levels.
SweetTreat is a unique advanced oxidation process used for the treatment of excess process condensate in sugar mills.
Cat B Neutral is a unique pH enhancing and buﬀering formulation, specially designed and developed to augment the SweetTreat condensate treatment process in sugar mills and for maintaining the pH of the water. It can also be used to maintain the pH of spray ponds, cooling towers and other suitable applications.
FLOW DIAGRAM FOR ENZYMATIC TREATMENT IN REFINERY