Microbial fermentation is well known traditional process for decades. Over the past few years, the fermentation process has been used to produce many value-added products including enzymes, organic acids, alcohols, polymers. Due to widespread application of enzymes in different industries (food, textile, and agriculture, pharmaceutical, leather, and detergent) increased the interest of biotechnologists to establish the economically feasible process.
Fig1: Application of microbial enzymes in different industries
As evident from previous studies, enzyme production using the fermentation route is eco-friendly. Microbial production of enzymes over plants or animal sources has many fundamental advantages. The main advantages are (i) it can be produced on large scale in limited space and time (ii) extraction and purification of an enzyme using microbial route is easier (iii) enzyme yield can be increased using genetic modifications. Enzymes can be produced intracellular or extracellular by a microbe. Most commonly produced enzymes on large scale such as amylase, proteases, catalase from bacteria, yeast, and fungi respectively are still used in different industries.
|S.no.||Enzyme||Source||Used in different Industry|
|1||α-Amylase||Bacteria, fungus||Starch industry, textile industry, food industry brewing industry|
|2||Cellulases||Fungus||Food industry, bakery industry, biofuel industry, biofuel industry.|
|4.||Lipases||Yeast, fungus||Food dairy, polymer industry, detergent processing industry|
|5.||Proteases||Fungus, bacteria||Cosmetic industry|
Table1: Industrially important enzymes obtained from different microbes.
Different techniques involved in the enzyme production selection of microbes, strain improvement to enhance the enzyme activity high and downstream to purify the quality product. Microbial production of enzymes has the potential to provide a viable solution to many industries. As an attractive and emerging technology, this area still needs to explore for successful application for the large scale.
Fig2: Process for enzyme production using food waste via genetically modified microbes and enzyme purification techniques (ref-google image).
Viswanath Vittaladevaram, Fermentative Production of Microbial Enzymes and their Applications: Present status and future prospects. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology 2015 (90-094). Qais Ali Al-Maqtari, Waleed AL-Ansi, and Amer Ali Mahdi, Microbial enzymes produced by fermentation and their applications in the food industry -A review. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 2019 (2319-1473)
Global concern for energy security issues increased the interest of workers in finding alternate clean energy sources owing to the fast depletion of conventional energy resources that are mainly based on fossil fuels. As evident from recent studies where hydrogen is touted to be one of the cleanest sources of energy and is considered as most significant over other energy forms due to its high net calorific value (2.75 times higher than gasoline). Also, the burning of hydrogen as a transportation fuel does not release any greenhouse gas. It can be used in jet engines, internal combustion engines, and fuel cells for conversion to energy. Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced from carbon-based non-renewable source that raises a great concern of rising Green House Gas emissions during the process of production [1-3]. Hence global attention shifted towards the generation of hydrogen from alternate non-renewable sources. In this regard, hydrogen production through biological processes holds significance as these pathways do not rely on conventional petroleum-based resources and can be operated at ambient conditions. Biohydrogen production through the use of microbes is characterized broadly into four different categories: bio photolysis, dark fermentation, photo-fermentation, and electro-fermentation. Among all these processes, dark and photo-fermentation routes considered suitable for hydrogen production from different carbohydrate and organic acid-based feedstocks, respectively.